1.物质，材料；【哲学】实体，本体，本质 (opp. appearance)。
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- Earthworms may produce antibiotic substances .
- We will consider first a newtonian substance .
- Alcohol is a solvent of resinous substances .
- This is an acrid and pungent substance .
- The articles are long-winded and devoid of substance .
- the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists; "DNA is the substance of our genes"
- a particular kind or species of matter with uniform properties; "shigella is one of the most toxic substances known to man"
- the idea that is intended; "What is the meaning of this proverb?"
- the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; "the gist of the prosecutor''s argument"; "the heart and soul of the Republican Party"; "the nub of the story"
同义词：kernel, core, center, centre, essence, gist, heart, heart and soul, inwardness, marrow, meat, nub, pith, sum, nitty-gritty
- what a communication that is about something is about
同义词：message, content, subject matter
- considerable capital (wealth or income); "he is a man of means"
- material of a particular kind or constitution; "the immune response recognizes invading substances"