- Three other groups-the Perkinsids, Syndiniales and Oxyrrhis are distantly related to the dinoflagellates.
- Dinoflagellates with a dinokaryon are classified under Dinokaryota, while dinoflagellates without a dinokaryon are classified under Syndiniales.
- In 2001, direct amplification of the rRNA gene in marine picoplankton samples revealed the presence of two novel alveolate linages, called group I and II . Group I has no cultivated relatives, while group II is related to the dinoflagellate parasite " Amoebophrya ", which was classified until now in the Syndiniales dinoflagellate order.
- It's difficult to find syndiniales in a sentence. 用syndiniales造句挺难的